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André Raatzsch

50 Fotografien ohne Antiziganismus

Nihad Nino Pušija | Palast der Republik 2008 | Photographie | Deutschland | 2008 | pho_00257_23 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive

Fotoserie von Nino Nihad Pušija

»Wie schwer ist es, eine Kultur durch Fotografien kennenzulernen und wie speziell ist dieser Kennenlernprozess im Fall der Kultur von Sinti und Roma1 Und wie kann dabei eine Selbstbestimmung und Selbstrepräsentation der sogenannten Sinti- und Roma-Fotograf_innen stattfinden? Kann eine Fotoserie zeitgenössischer Fotografie das vorurteilsfreie Interesse für das »Anderssein« öffnen und gegen einen Automatismus des Antiziganismus auftreten? Und wie kann der Kanon der visuellen Repräsentationen der Rom_nja unterbrochen werden? Was bedeuten in diesem Zusammenhang z.B. Roma-Folklorebewegungen, Prozesse der Nationenbildung oder kulturelle Hybridität? Können (kulturelle) Institutionen sogenannte Roma-Künstler_innen emanzipieren bzw. legitimieren?

Die bisherigen Praxisbeispiele von Sinti- und Roma-Kunstausstellungen zeigen, dass Vermittlungsprogramme bzw. gleichgestellte vermittelnde Textinformationen die ausgestellten Kunstwerke, Videoarbeiten oder Fotografien nur sehr selten mitbestimmt oder erweitert haben, obwohl die Rolle dieser »Zusatzinformationen« gerade bei der Veränderung der konservierenden, »zigeunertypischen«2 Betrachtungsweisen eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben gewesen wäre.

Für die Betrachter_innen ist es wichtig, die neuen Sichtweisen auf eine Roma-Kunstausstellung nachvollziehen zu können, die weit über ihre eigenen, im Vorfeld gebildeten Vorstellungen hinausgehen. Wichtige Erkenntnisprozesse und Anregungen werden so wiederbelebt und aktiviert, etwa die Frage nach der Autonomie von »Sinti- und Roma-«Künstler_innen im Vergleich zu »deutschen« Künstler_innen.

Durch die performative Transformation des Instituto Cervantes in das (fiktive) »Roma Kulturinstitut« erfuhren die ausgestellten Werke und Künstler_innen eine erweiterte Positionierung und Bedeutung, was alle Beteiligten nachdenklich stimmte. Der »Institutionswechsel« erzeugte eindeutig die Frage, für wen die Ausstellung gedacht war?

Eine gelungene Störung des Kanons der visuellen Repräsentation von Rom_nja konnte ich mit der Auswahl von Nihad Nino Pušijas fotografischen Arbeiten erreichen. Ich lud ihn mit einem kleineren Konvolut von nicht »zigeunertypischen« Fotografien zur Ausstellung ein. Ich folgte damit dem Ziel, die von der »Ethno-Industrie« erwarteten Bilder schlichtweg nicht zu wiederholen, um so auf einen sehr wichtigen Aspekt hinzuweisen: Um sich als Künstler_in zu legitimieren, müssen Roma-Künstler_innen keine »zigeunertypischen« Werke schaffen. Ich gehe noch weiter: Die Vielseitigkeit der fotografischen Motive in Pušijas Werk (siehe auch den Katalogtext von Dr. Sibylle Badstübner-Gröger) verweist viel »ehrlicher« auf die Komplexität ethnisierter Identitätsbestimmungen bzw. auf nationale Zugehörigkeiten und gleichzeitige Hybriditäten – im Falle Pušijas auf die ex-jugoslawische und die deutsche Kultur –, als es in »herkömmlichen« Abbildungen von Rom_nja der Fall ist.

  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Familienstudio Kotti 2001 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 2001 | pho_00257_01 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | WTC New York 1990 | Fotografie | Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika | 1990 | pho_00257_02 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | America 1990 | Fotografie | Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika | 1990 | pho_00257_03 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | America 1990 | Fotografie | Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika | 1990 | pho_00257_04 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | America 1990 | Fotografie | Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika | 1990 | pho_00257_05 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | America 1990 | Fotografie | Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika | 1990 | pho_00257_06 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | America 1990 | Fotografie | Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika | 1990 | pho_00257_07 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Familienstudio Kotti 2001 | Photographie | Deutschland | 2001 | pho_00257_08 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 1996 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 1996 | pho_00257_09 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 1988 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 1988 | pho_00257_10 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 1996 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 1996 | pho_00257_11 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 1996 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 1996 | pho_00257_12 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 2003 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 2003 | pho_00257_13 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 1996 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 1996 | pho_00257_14 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Charlotte von Mahlsdorf 1997 | Photographie | Deutschland | 1997 | pho_00257_15 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Nadejda Tretjak 2000 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 2000 | pho_00257_16 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Bosnien 2014 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 2014 | pho_00257_17 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 2013 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 2013 | pho_00257_18 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 2002 | Photographie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 2002 | pho_00257_19 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 2004 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 2004 | pho_00257_20 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Sarajevo 2004 | Photographie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 2004 | pho_00257_21 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Einbürgerung 2008 | Photographie | Deutschland | 2008 | pho_00257_22 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Palast der Republik 2008 | Photographie | Deutschland | 2008 | pho_00257_23 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Gemälde Galerie 2012 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 2012 | pho_00257_24 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Clärchens Ballhaus 2007 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 2007 | pho_00257_25 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Reichstag 1995 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1995 | pho_00257_26 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Queen Kenny 1996 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1996 | pho_00257_27 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | chequepoint fashion 1994 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1994 | pho_00257_28 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | SO36 1995 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1995 | pho_00257_29 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Queen Kenny 1996 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1996 | pho_00257_30 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Tuntenball 1997 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1997 | pho_00257_31 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Flüchtlinge 1992 | Fotografie | 1992 | pho_00257_32 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Flüchtlinge 1992 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1992 | pho_00257_33 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Heike Makatsch 1995 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1995 | pho_00257_34 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Teddy Gala 1996 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1996 | pho_00257_35 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Komparsen | Fotografie | Deutschland | pho_00257_36 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Komparsen | Fotografie | Deutschland | pho_00257_37 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Komparsen | Fotografie | Deutschland | pho_00257_38 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Martin Knopf 2006 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 2006 | pho_00257_39 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Irm Hermann 1999 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1999 | pho_00257_40 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Chayene Teddy Gala 1996 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1996 | pho_00257_41 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Medjugorje Herzegowina 1986 | Fotografie | Jugoslawien | 1986 | pho_00257_42 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Medjugorje Herzegowina 1986 | Fotografie | Jugoslawien | 1986 | pho_00257_43 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Marina Abramovic 2000 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 2000 | pho_00257_44 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Mostar Bosnien 1987 | Fotografie | Jugoslawien | 1987 | pho_00257_45 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Rainer Hildebrandt 1998 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1998 | pho_00257_46 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Mostar Bosnien 1987 | Fotografie | Jugoslawien | 1987 | pho_00257_47 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Roma in Berlin 1996 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1996 | pho_00257_48 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Roma in Bosnien 2004 | Fotografie | Bosnien und Herzegowina | 2004 | pho_00257_49 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
  • Nihad Nino Pušija | Teddy Gala Tony Ward 1996 | Fotografie | Deutschland | 1996 | pho_00257_50 Rights held by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed by: Nihad Nino Pušija | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: Nihad Nino Pušija – Private Archive
Era Trammer | Reading Photography | Non Fiction | Österreich, Deutschland | 2018 | pho_00269 Rights held by: André Raatzsch — Erika Trammer | Licensed by: André Raatzsch — Erika Trammer | Licensed under: CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International | Provided by: RomArchive The images cited in the film were kindly provided by: Fortepan (Kornál Umann / Tamás Urbán / Katalin Eindrei / Pál Schiffer) | Magnum Photos / Agentur Focus (Burt Glinn) | Nihad Nino Pušija